Guía de Estudio: Clase 28
GRAMMAR : 2nd Conditional
- We use the 2nd conditional to talk about an improbable or impossible present or future situation and its consequent or result. We use this when we talk about something hypothetical.
- *(Usamos el 2do condicional para hablar de alguna situacion presente o futura, que sea improbableo imposible. Lo usamos cuando hablamos de algo hipotético.)*
“If I had more time, I’d help you.”
“If I were you, I wouldn’t do that!”
- In the above example, the reality is = I don’t have any time, I’m very busy so I can’t help you.
- *(En el ejemplo de arriba, la realidad es = No tengo tiempo, estoy muy ocupada osea que no te puedo ayudar.)*
- We imagine the opposite and talk about the result of that imaginary situation - I’d help you.
- *(Nos imaginamos el opuesto y hablamos del resultado de esta situación imaginaria - te ayudaría)*
- We use “if” + past tense in the conditional clause, and “would” + inﬁnitive in the result clause.
- We don’t often use “would” in the conditional clause
- *(Generalmente no usamos “would” en la clausula condicional.)*
- The result clause can come ﬁrst, such as;
- *(La clausula de resultado puede venir antes, como;)*
“I’d help you if I had more time.”
“You’d quit if you had another job.”
“We’d make dinner if we had ingredients in the house.”
- We are talking about the present or future, but we use the past tense!
- *(Estamos hablando del presente o del futuro, pero usamos la conjugación de pasado!)*
- "Would" is a modal auxiliary verb, so..
- *(“Would” es un verbo modal auxiliar entonces..)*
- We use the same form for all persons
- We use the inﬁnitive without “to”
- We don’t use another auxiliary with it e.g. “do”/”does”
- We use “not” to make negative statements
- We can use contractions with “would”
- We very often use “were” with I / he / she / it
- *(Usamos la misma forma para todas las personas
- Usamos el infinitivo sin "to"
- No usamos otro auxiliar - e.g. "do"/"does"
- Usamos “not” para hacer oraciones negativas
- Podemos usar contracciones con "would"
- Muchas veces usamos “were” con I / he / she / it)*
“If I were you, I’d go to the doctor.”
“If she were available, she’d help you.”
“If we were there, we’d invite you to dinner.”
- We can also use “could” in the result clause. - It means would be able to
- *(También podemos usar “could” en la clausula de resultado- significa poder hacerlo)*
“If I were taller, I could touch the ceiling.”
“If I were taller, I would be able to touch the ceiling.”
“If we were coworkers, we could help with the work.”
“If we were coworkers, we would be able to help with the work.”
- Using incorrect tenses
- *(Usar las conjugaciones incorrectas)*
“If I had more money I would go on vacation”
“If I have more money, I would go on vacation.”
“If you made the dessert, I would bring the ice cream.”
"If you make the dessert, I would bring the ice cream.“
- Mixing up conditionals
- *(Confundir condicionales)*
“If I see you later, I’ll call you.”
“If I saw you later, I’ll call you.”
“If we want to go, we’ll let you know.”
“If we wanted to go, we’ll let you know.”
- Omitting auxiliary
- *(Omitir el auxiliar)*
"If John lost his job, he would move to another country."
"If John lost his job, he moved to another country.”
"If we found the keys, we would open the door now."
"If we found the keys, we opened the door now."
- Using s with 3rd person singular
- *(Usar s con la 3ra persona singular)*
"If he had more time, he would help you."
"If he had more time, he woulds help you."
"If it were cold enough, it would snow."
“If it were cold enough, it woulds snow.”
VOCABULARY : Describing character - Adjectives / Idioms
- as cold as ice – no emotion or feelings
- average joe – boring and normal
- barrel of laughs – funny and interesting
- bold as brass – overconﬁdent
- crybaby – complains and cries easily
- highhanded – arrogant and big-headed
- out of your mind – not rational, behaving in a crazy way
- two-faced – false, says bad things when you’re not there
- a bad egg – you can’t trust this person
- fat cat – has too much money and power
- cool as a cucumber – relaxed, doesn’t care about what happens
- couch potato – lazy, spends a lot of time watching TV
- down to earth – realistic and practical
- a jerk — insensitive, selﬁsh, and not a nice person
- nice as pie – very kind and friendly
- openminded – accepts other people’s views and beliefs
- narrowminded – opposite of openminded
- like chalk and cheese – two people who are very different
I wish / If only
- We use I wish / if only when we talk about a situation we want to change but we can’t change. We very often use it with hypothetical situations.
- *(Usamos “I wish” / “if only” cuando hablamos de una situacion que nos gustaría cambiar pero no es posible. Muchas veces lo usamos en situaciones hipotéticas)*
“I wish I had more money!”
“If only it was Friday!”
- In the above examples, the reality is = I don’t have much money and It isn’t Friday.
- *(En los ejemplos de arriba, la realidad es = No tengo mucho dinero, y no es viernes)*
- We are talking about the present, but we use past tenses!
- We use “if only” for more emphasis.
- *(Hablamos del presente pero usamos conjugaciones de pasado!
- Usamos “if only” para más enfasis)*
Un clip hecho con momentos de la pelicula Hercules de Disney para repasar la clausula de IF